The aim of this session is to emphasize the importance of creating and maintaining excellent working conditions necessary for attracting and retaining excellent researchers. This will include an array of important aspects, from the legislative framework regarding the “equal pay for equal work” (i.e. remuneration), grant portability to the social protection of researchers. The objective is to give examples and recommendations on best policies, instruments and programmes on national, regional, and European level for improving researchers’ working conditions and thereby to more successfully attract, retain and reintegrate excellent researchers. In addition, the overview of the most common challenges in raising the attractiveness of the environment for the research excellence, and much needed incentives and policy reforms, will be given. The European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers, as one of the important factors in creating excellent working conditions and prerequisite for bolstering mobility in R&I sector, will be discussed in more detail.